Undergraduate Degree

  • California Institute Of Technology , 1961 , Pasadena , CA

Medical School

  • Stanford University School of Medicine , 1966 , Stanford , CA


  • Massachusetts General Hospital , 1967 , Boston , MA


  • Massachusetts General Hospital , 1968 , Boston , MA


Cardiovascular Disease
  • Massachusetts General Hospital , 1972 , Boston , MA


  • Boston Children's Hospital , 1973 , Boston , MA

Philosophy of Care

I was interested in science from an early age, with my brother accompanying our father on geology field trips with his students from Northwestern University. I had an extensive home chemistry laboratory and an active interest in electronics and went to Caltech with the expectation of being a "hard" scientist. I became progressively more interested in biology and was nearly seduced by a summer marine biology course into a life as a marine biologist, but felt somehow that moving away from pure science and toward the human, personal and particular nature of life as I experienced it would be more fulfilling to all of the components of that life, and more challenging to me as one who was confident in technical knowledge and skills but saw room to grow as a person and serve as a citizen in real time, and that medicine was the place of confluence of what I had been and was and what I might and would be.

National Merit Scholar 1957; First Prize, Chicago Chapter American Chemical Society student competition; Honors at Entrance, Caltech; Junior Year inductee, Alpha Omega Alpha Medical Honor Society; Upjohn Award for Excellence in Clinical Medicine, Stanford (all in the CV)


I was an undergraduate at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), graduating in 1961 with a bachelor of science in biology. My original major was chemistry, switching to biology in my sophomore year. I attended Stanford Medical School in their new five year program, but rather than using the extra time to develop a laboratory science concentration I spent my elective time largely in cardiology and cardiovascular surgery, continuing those interests and concentrations in my elective time while an intern and resident at MGH. While at Stanford and continuing at MGH I became particularly interested in adults with congenital heart disease, and to round out my education in congenital cardiology I took an additional year of fellowship in pediatric cardiology at Boston Children's Hospital. I then joined the faculty and began to develop a clinical program emphasizing my interest in adults with congenital heart disease, a project that subsequently developed into the BACH adult congenital heart disease program. I also spent considerable time in the cardiac pathology service and during the sabbatical of Prof.Van Praagh ran the congenital cardiac pathology program and conferences. While continuing my clinic at Children's I spent four years as director of the Heart Station cardiac noninvasive laboratory at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital, stepping back in 1978 to associate director while opening my private practice in cardiovascular disease with emphasis on noninvasive diagnosis and adults with congenital heart disease, continuing that practice to the present day as well as remaining an active part-time member of the Children's Hospital cardiology department.


  • American Board of Internal Medicine
  • American Board of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular Disease