I have expertise in neuroimage analysis using structural and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and I have been focused on development and analysis of quantitative neuroimaging features of normal and abnormal brain development. I have developed methodologies for quantifying and investigating early cortical structural development, and for examining white matter connectivity patterns based on individual’s cortical gyral patterns. My long-term goal is to provide a novel and unique imaging biomarker for genetic brain disorders, and develop my career as a pioneer in a translational research filed of the developmental neuroimaging. To that end, I have been studying various developmental brain disorders using my original MRI analysis techniques and showing the potential to really diagnose developmental problems in multiple disorders (polymicrogyria, developmental dyslexia, tuberous sclerosis complex, and TUBB3 syndromes). 


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  1. Vasung L, Yun HJ, Feldman HA, Grant PE, Im K. An Atypical Sulcal Pattern in Children with Disorders of the Corpus Callosum and Its Relation to Behavioral Outcomes. Cereb Cortex. 2020 Jul 30; 30(9):4790-4799. View abstract
  2. Yun HJ, Vasung L, Tarui T, Rollins CK, Ortinau CM, Grant PE, Im K. Temporal Patterns of Emergence and Spatial Distribution of Sulcal Pits During Fetal Life. Cereb Cortex. 2020 Jun 01; 30(7):4257-4268. View abstract
  3. Morton SU, Maleyeff L, Wypij D, Yun HJ, Newburger JW, Bellinger DC, Roberts AE, Rivkin MJ, Seidman JG, Seidman CE, Grant PE, Im K. Abnormal Left-Hemispheric Sulcal Patterns Correlate with Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Subjects with Single Ventricular Congenital Heart Disease. Cereb Cortex. 2020 Mar 21; 30(2):476-487. View abstract
  4. Tarui T, Im K, Madan N, Madankumar R, Skotko BG, Schwartz A, Sharr C, Ralston SJ, Kitano R, Akiyama S, Yun HJ, Grant E, Bianchi DW. Quantitative MRI Analyses of Regional Brain Growth in Living Fetuses with Down Syndrome. Cereb Cortex. 2020 01 10; 30(1):382-390. View abstract
  5. Chung AW, Mannix R, Feldman HA, Grant PE, Im K. Longitudinal structural connectomic and rich-club analysis in adolescent mTBI reveals persistent, distributed brain alterations acutely through to one year post-injury. Sci Rep. 2019 12 11; 9(1):18833. View abstract
  6. Ortinau CM, Rollins CK, Gholipour A, Yun HJ, Marshall M, Gagoski B, Afacan O, Friedman K, Tworetzky W, Warfield SK, Newburger JW, Inder TE, Grant PE, Im K. Early-Emerging Sulcal Patterns Are Atypical in Fetuses with Congenital Heart Disease. Cereb Cortex. 2019 07 22; 29(8):3605-3616. View abstract
  7. Grant PE, Im K, Ahtam B, Laurentys CT, Chan WM, Brainard M, Chew S, Drottar M, Robson CD, Drmic I, Engle EC. Altered White Matter Organization in the TUBB3 E410K Syndrome. Cereb Cortex. 2019 07 22; 29(8):3561-3576. View abstract
  8. Ahtam B, Link N, Hoff E, Ellen Grant P, Im K. Altered structural brain connectivity involving the dorsal and ventral language pathways in 16p11.2 deletion syndrome. Brain Imaging Behav. 2019 Apr; 13(2):430-445. View abstract
  9. Papadelis C, Ahtam B, Feldman HA, AlHilani M, Tamilia E, Nimec D, Snyder B, Ellen Grant P, Im K. Altered White Matter Connectivity Associated with Intergyral Brain Disorganization in Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy. Neuroscience. 2019 02 10; 399:146-160. View abstract
  10. Yun HJ, Chung AW, Vasung L, Yang E, Tarui T, Rollins CK, Ortinau CM, Grant PE, Im K. Automatic labeling of cortical sulci for the human fetal brain based on spatio-temporal information of gyrification. Neuroimage. 2019 03; 188:473-482. View abstract
  11. Tarui T, Madan N, Farhat N, Kitano R, Ceren Tanritanir A, Graham G, Gagoski B, Craig A, Rollins CK, Ortinau C, Iyer V, Pienaar R, Bianchi DW, Grant PE, Im K. Disorganized Patterns of Sulcal Position in Fetal Brains with Agenesis of Corpus Callosum. Cereb Cortex. 2018 09 01; 28(9):3192-3203. View abstract
  12. Smith RS, Kenny CJ, Ganesh V, Jang A, Borges-Monroy R, Partlow JN, Hill RS, Shin T, Chen AY, Doan RN, Anttonen AK, Ignatius J, Medne L, Bönnemann CG, Hecht JL, Salonen O, Barkovich AJ, Poduri A, Wilke M, de Wit MCY, Mancini GMS, Sztriha L, Im K, Amrom D, Andermann E, Paetau R, Lehesjoki AE, Walsh CA, Lehtinen MK. Sodium Channel SCN3A (NaV1.3) Regulation of Human Cerebral Cortical Folding and Oral Motor Development. Neuron. 2018 09 05; 99(5):905-913.e7. View abstract
  13. Johnson MB, Sun X, Kodani A, Borges-Monroy R, Girskis KM, Ryu SC, Wang PP, Patel K, Gonzalez DM, Woo YM, Yan Z, Liang B, Smith RS, Chatterjee M, Coman D, Papademetris X, Staib LH, Hyder F, Mandeville JB, Grant PE, Im K, Kwak H, Engelhardt JF, Walsh CA, Bae BI. Aspm knockout ferret reveals an evolutionary mechanism governing cerebral cortical size. Nature. 2018 04; 556(7701):370-375. View abstract
  14. Im K, Grant PE. Sulcal pits and patterns in developing human brains. Neuroimage. 2019 01 15; 185:881-890. View abstract
  15. Banerjee G, Jang H, Kim HJ, Kim ST, Kim JS, Lee JH, Im K, Kwon H, Lee JM, Na DL, Seo SW, Werring DJ. Total MRI Small Vessel Disease Burden Correlates with Cognitive Performance, Cortical Atrophy, and Network Measures in a Memory Clinic Population. J Alzheimers Dis. 2018; 63(4):1485-1497. View abstract
  16. Kim Y, Jang H, Kim SJ, Cho SH, Kim SE, Kim ST, Kim HJ, Moon SH, Ewers M, Im K, Kwon H, Na DL, Seo SW. Vascular Effects on Depressive Symptoms in Cognitive Impairment. J Alzheimers Dis. 2018; 65(2):597-605. View abstract
  17. Arca-Díaz G, Re TJ, Drottar M, Fortuno CR, De Macedo-Rodrigues K, Im K, Figueras-Aloy J, Grant PE. Can cerebellar and brainstem apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values predict neuromotor outcome in term neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) treated with hypothermia? PLoS One. 2017; 12(7):e0178510. View abstract
  18. Im K, Guimaraes A, Kim Y, Cottrill E, Gagoski B, Rollins C, Ortinau C, Yang E, Grant PE. Quantitative Folding Pattern Analysis of Early Primary Sulci in Human Fetuses with Brain Abnormalities. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2017 Jul; 38(7):1449-1455. View abstract
  19. Kim GH, Im K, Kwon H, Seo SW, Ye BS, Cho H, Noh Y, Lee JM, Kim ST, Park SE, Kim H, Hwang JW, Kang SJ, Jeong JH, Na DL. Higher Physical Activity Is Associated with Increased Attentional Network Connectivity in the Healthy Elderly. Front Aging Neurosci. 2016; 8:198. View abstract
  20. Jung JH, Choi Y, Im KC. PET/MRI: Technical Challenges and Recent Advances. Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2016 Mar; 50(1):3-12. View abstract
  21. Jang YK, Kwon H, Kim YJ, Jung NY, Lee JS, Lee J, Chin J, Im K, Jeon S, Lee JM, Seong JK, Kim JH, Kim S, Choe YS, Lee KH, Kim ST, Kim JS, Lee JH, Na DL, Seo SW, Kim HJ. Early- vs late-onset subcortical vascular cognitive impairment. Neurology. 2016 Feb 09; 86(6):527-34. View abstract
  22. Kim HJ, Im K, Kwon H, Lee JM, Kim C, Kim YJ, Jung NY, Cho H, Ye BS, Noh Y, Kim GH, Ko ED, Kim JS, Choe YS, Lee KH, Kim ST, Lee JH, Ewers M, Weiner MW, Na DL, Seo SW. Clinical effect of white matter network disruption related to amyloid and small vessel disease. Neurology. 2015 Jul 07; 85(1):63-70. View abstract
  23. Kim GH, Jeon S, Im K, Kwon H, Lee BH, Kim GY, Jeong H, Han NE, Seo SW, Cho H, Noh Y, Park SE, Kim H, Hwang JW, Yoon CW, Kim HJ, Ye BS, Chin JH, Kim JH, Suh MK, Lee JM, Kim ST, Choi MT, Kim MS, Heilman KM, Jeong JH, Na DL. Structural brain changes after traditional and robot-assisted multi-domain cognitive training in community-dwelling healthy elderly. PLoS One. 2015; 10(4):e0123251. View abstract
  24. Im K, Ahtam B, Haehn D, Peters JM, Warfield SK, Sahin M, Ellen Grant P. Altered Structural Brain Networks in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex. Cereb Cortex. 2016 May; 26(5):2046-58. View abstract
  25. Im K, Raschle NM, Smith SA, Ellen Grant P, Gaab N. Atypical Sulcal Pattern in Children with Developmental Dyslexia and At-Risk Kindergarteners. Cereb Cortex. 2016 Mar; 26(3):1138-1148. View abstract
  26. Kim HJ, Im K, Kwon H, Lee JM, Ye BS, Kim YJ, Cho H, Choe YS, Lee KH, Kim ST, Kim JS, Lee JH, Na DL, Seo SW. Effects of amyloid and small vessel disease on white matter network disruption. J Alzheimers Dis. 2015; 44(3):963-75. View abstract
  27. Jung J, Choi Y, Jung JH, Kim S, Im KC, Lim HK, Oh C, Park H, Cho G. Development of PET insert for simultaneous PET/MR imaging of human brain. EJNMMI Phys. 2014 Jul; 1(Suppl 1):A8. View abstract
  28. Bae BI, Tietjen I, Atabay KD, Evrony GD, Johnson MB, Asare E, Wang PP, Murayama AY, Im K, Lisgo SN, Overman L, Šestan N, Chang BS, Barkovich AJ, Grant PE, Topçu M, Politsky J, Okano H, Piao X, Walsh CA. Evolutionarily dynamic alternative splicing of GPR56 regulates regional cerebral cortical patterning. Science. 2014 Feb 14; 343(6172):764-8. View abstract
  29. Park HK, Kim JS, Im KC, Kim MJ, Lee JH, Lee MC, Kim J, Chung SJ. Visual hallucinations and cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease. Can J Neurol Sci. 2013 Sep; 40(5):657-62. View abstract
  30. Im K, Paldino MJ, Poduri A, Sporns O, Grant PE. Altered white matter connectivity and network organization in polymicrogyria revealed by individual gyral topology-based analysis. Neuroimage. 2014 Feb 01; 86:182-93. View abstract
  31. Yun HJ, Im K, Yoon U, Lee JM. Automated sulcal depth measurement on cortical surface reflecting geometrical properties of sulci. PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e55977. View abstract
  32. Cho H, Jeon S, Kang SJ, Lee JM, Lee JH, Kim GH, Shin JS, Kim CH, Noh Y, Im K, Kim ST, Chin J, Seo SW, Na DL. Longitudinal changes of cortical thickness in early- versus late-onset Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging. 2013 Jul; 34(7):1921.e9-1921.e15. View abstract
  33. Im K, Lee JM, Jeon S, Kim JH, Seo SW, Na DL, Grant PE. Reliable identification of deep sulcal pits: the effects of scan session, scanner, and surface extraction tool. PLoS One. 2013; 8(1):e53678. View abstract
  34. Cho EB, Seo SW, Kim H, Lee JM, Yoon U, Im K, Kim GH, Noh Y, Cho H, Yoon CW, Kim HJ, Na DL. Effect of kidney dysfunction on cortical thinning in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease dementia. J Alzheimers Dis. 2013; 33(4):961-8. View abstract
  35. Im K, Pienaar R, Paldino MJ, Gaab N, Galaburda AM, Grant PE. Quantification and discrimination of abnormal sulcal patterns in polymicrogyria. Cereb Cortex. 2013 Dec; 23(12):3007-15. View abstract
  36. Seo SW, Lee JM, Im K, Park JS, Kim SH, Kim ST, Ahn JH, Kim MJ, Kim GH, Kim JH, Roh JH, Cheong HK, Na DL. Cardiovascular risk factors cause cortical thinning in cognitively impaired patients: relationships among cardiovascular risk factors, white matter hyperintensities, and cortical atrophy. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2012 Apr-Jun; 26(2):106-12. View abstract
  37. Lee EM, Park GY, Im KC, Kim ST, Woo CW, Chung JH, Kim KS, Kim JS, Shon YM, Kim YI, Kang JK. Changes in glucose metabolism and metabolites during the epileptogenic process in the lithium-pilocarpine model of epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2012 May; 53(5):860-9. View abstract
  38. Kim GH, Jeon S, Seo SW, Kim MJ, Kim JH, Roh JH, Shin JS, Kim CH, Im K, Lee JM, Qiu A, Kim ST, Na DL. Topography of cortical thinning areas associated with hippocampal atrophy (HA) in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2012 Mar-Apr; 54(2):e122-9. View abstract
  39. Ahn HJ, Seo SW, Chin J, Suh MK, Lee BH, Kim ST, Im K, Lee JM, Lee JH, Heilman KM, Na DL. The cortical neuroanatomy of neuropsychological deficits in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: a surface-based morphometric analysis. Neuropsychologia. 2011 Dec; 49(14):3931-45. View abstract
  40. Kim MJ, Im K, Lee JM, Park A, Chin J, Kim GH, Kim JH, Roh JH, Seo SW, Na DL. Cortical thinning in verbal, visual, and both memory-predominant mild cognitive impairment. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2011 Jul-Sep; 25(3):242-9. View abstract
  41. Cho Y, Seong JK, Shin SY, Jeong Y, Kim JH, Qiu A, Im K, Lee JM, Na DL. A multi-resolution scheme for distortion-minimizing mapping between human subcortical structures based on geodesic construction on Riemannian manifolds. Neuroimage. 2011 Aug 15; 57(4):1376-92. View abstract
  42. Im K, Pienaar R, Lee JM, Seong JK, Choi YY, Lee KH, Grant PE. Quantitative comparison and analysis of sulcal patterns using sulcal graph matching: a twin study. Neuroimage. 2011 Aug 01; 57(3):1077-86. View abstract
  43. Seo SW, Lee JM, Im K, Park JS, Kim SH, Kim ST, Ahn HJ, Chin J, Cheong HK, Weiner MW, Na DL. Cortical thinning related to periventricular and deep white matter hyperintensities. Neurobiol Aging. 2012 Jul; 33(7):1156-67. View abstract
  44. Im K, Choi YY, Yang JJ, Lee KH, Kim SI, Grant PE, Lee JM. The relationship between the presence of sulcal pits and intelligence in human brains. Neuroimage. 2011 Apr 15; 55(4):1490-6. View abstract
  45. Choi W, Lee SW, Park SH, Ryu JS, Oh SJ, Im KC, Choi EK, Kim JH, Jung SH, Kim S, Ahn SD. Planning study for available dose of hypoxic tumor volume using fluorine-18-labeled fluoromisonidazole positron emission tomography for treatment of the head and neck cancer. Radiother Oncol. 2010 Nov; 97(2):176-82. View abstract
  46. Lyu I, Seong JK, Shin SY, Im K, Roh JH, Kim MJ, Kim GH, Kim JH, Evans AC, Na DL, Lee JM. Spectral-based automatic labeling and refining of human cortical sulcal curves using expert-provided examples. Neuroimage. 2010 Aug 01; 52(1):142-57. View abstract
  47. Seong JK, Im K, Yoo SW, Seo SW, Na DL, Lee JM. Automatic extraction of sulcal lines on cortical surfaces based on anisotropic geodesic distance. Neuroimage. 2010 Jan 01; 49(1):293-302. View abstract
  48. Im KC, Choi IS, Ryu JS, Eo GS, Kim JS, Moon DH. PET/CT fusion viewing software for use with picture archiving and communication systems. J Digit Imaging. 2010 Dec; 23(6):732-43. View abstract
  49. Choi SJ, Kim SY, Kim SJ, Lee JS, Lee SJ, Park SA, Lee SJ, Yun SC, Im KC, Oh SJ, Kim SW, Kim JS, Ryu JS, Moon DH. Reproducibility of the kinetic analysis of 3'-deoxy-3'-[(18)F]fluorothymidine positron emission tomography in mouse tumor models. Nucl Med Biol. 2009 Oct; 36(7):711-9. View abstract
  50. Im K, Jo HJ, Mangin JF, Evans AC, Kim SI, Lee JM. Spatial distribution of deep sulcal landmarks and hemispherical asymmetry on the cortical surface. Cereb Cortex. 2010 Mar; 20(3):602-11. View abstract
  51. Kwon KY, Kim JS, Im KC, Lee MC, Chung SJ. Comparison of Cerebral Glucose Metabolism between Possible and Probable Multiple System Atrophy. J Mov Disord. 2009 May; 2(1):22-8. View abstract
  52. Seo SW, Im K, Lee JM, Kim ST, Ahn HJ, Go SM, Kim SH, Na DL. Effects of demographic factors on cortical thickness in Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging. 2011 Feb; 32(2):200-9. View abstract
  53. Lee EM, Im KC, Kim JH, Lee JK, Hong SH, No YJ, Lee SA, Kim JS, Kang JK. Relationship between hypometabolic patterns and ictal scalp EEG patterns in patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis: An FDG-PET study. Epilepsy Res. 2009 Apr; 84(2-3):187-93. View abstract
  54. Choi EK, Kim JK, Choi HJ, Park SH, Park BW, Kim N, Kim JS, Im KC, Cho G, Cho KS. Node-by-node correlation between MR and PET/CT in patients with uterine cervical cancer: diffusion-weighted imaging versus size-based criteria on T2WI. Eur Radiol. 2009 Aug; 19(8):2024-32. View abstract
  55. Seo SW, Ahn J, Yoon U, Im K, Lee JM, Tae Kim S, Ahn HJ, Chin J, Jeong Y, Na DL. Cortical thinning in vascular mild cognitive impairment and vascular dementia of subcortical type. J Neuroimaging. 2010 Jan; 20(1):37-45. View abstract
  56. Sohn HJ, Yang YJ, Ryu JS, Oh SJ, Im KC, Moon DH, Lee DH, Suh C, Lee JS, Kim SW. [18F]Fluorothymidine positron emission tomography before and 7 days after gefitinib treatment predicts response in patients with advanced adenocarcinoma of the lung. Clin Cancer Res. 2008 Nov 15; 14(22):7423-9. View abstract
  57. Im K, Lee JM, Seo SW, Hyung Kim S, Kim SI, Na DL. Sulcal morphology changes and their relationship with cortical thickness and gyral white matter volume in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. Neuroimage. 2008 Oct 15; 43(1):103-13. View abstract
  58. Kim JS, Lee JS, Park MH, Kang H, Lee JJ, Lee HJ, Im KC, Moon DH, Lim SM, Oh SH, Lee DS. Assessment of cerebral glucose metabolism in cat deafness model: strategies for improving the voxel-based statistical analysis for animal PET studies. Mol Imaging Biol. 2008 May-Jun; 10(3):154-61. View abstract
  59. Im K, Lee JM, Seo SW, Yoon U, Kim ST, Kim YH, Kim SI, Na DL. Variations in cortical thickness with dementia severity in Alzheimer's disease. Neurosci Lett. 2008 May 09; 436(2):227-31. View abstract
  60. Lee SW, Nam SY, Im KC, Kim JS, Choi EK, Ahn SD, Park SH, Kim SY, Lee BJ, Kim JH. Prediction of prognosis using standardized uptake value of 2-[(18)F] fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography for nasopharyngeal carcinomas. Radiother Oncol. 2008 May; 87(2):211-6. View abstract
  61. Im K, Lee JM, Lyttelton O, Kim SH, Evans AC, Kim SI. Brain size and cortical structure in the adult human brain. Cereb Cortex. 2008 Sep; 18(9):2181-91. View abstract
  62. Kim JS, Lee JS, Im KC, Kim SJ, Kim SY, Lee DS, Moon DH. Performance measurement of the microPET focus 120 scanner. J Nucl Med. 2007 Sep; 48(9):1527-35. View abstract
  63. Seo SW, Im K, Lee JM, Kim YH, Kim ST, Kim SY, Yang DW, Kim SI, Cho YS, Na DL. Cortical thickness in single- versus multiple-domain amnestic mild cognitive impairment. Neuroimage. 2007 Jun; 36(2):289-97. View abstract
  64. Kim SY, Lee SW, Nam SY, Im KC, Kim JS, Oh SJ, Ahn SD, Shin SS, Choi EK, Kim JH. The Feasibility of 18F-FDG PET scans 1 month after completing radiotherapy of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. J Nucl Med. 2007 Mar; 48(3):373-8. View abstract
  65. Kim JH, Im KC, Kim JS, Lee SA, Lee JK, Khang SK, Kang JK. Ictal hyperperfusion patterns in relation to ictal scalp EEG patterns in patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis: a SPECT study. Epilepsia. 2007 Feb; 48(2):270-7. View abstract
  66. Yoon U, Lee JM, Im K, Shin YW, Cho BH, Kim IY, Kwon JS, Kim SI. Pattern classification using principal components of cortical thickness and its discriminative pattern in schizophrenia. Neuroimage. 2007 Feb 15; 34(4):1405-15. View abstract
  67. Im K, Lee JM, Yoon U, Shin YW, Hong SB, Kim IY, Kwon JS, Kim SI. Fractal dimension in human cortical surface: multiple regression analysis with cortical thickness, sulcal depth, and folding area. Hum Brain Mapp. 2006 Dec; 27(12):994-1003. View abstract
  68. Pai M, Yang YJ, Im KC, Hong IK, Yun SC, Kang DH, Song JK, Moon DH. Factors affecting accuracy of ventricular volume and ejection fraction measured by gated tl-201 myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2006 Oct; 22(5):671-81. View abstract
  69. Im K, Lee JM, Lee J, Shin YW, Kim IY, Kwon JS, Kim SI. Gender difference analysis of cortical thickness in healthy young adults with surface-based methods. Neuroimage. 2006 May 15; 31(1):31-8. View abstract
  70. Yang YJ, Ryu JS, Kim SY, Oh SJ, Im KC, Lee H, Lee SW, Cho KJ, Cheon GJ, Moon DH. Use of 3'-deoxy-3'-[18F]fluorothymidine PET to monitor early responses to radiation therapy in murine SCCVII tumors. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2006 Apr; 33(4):412-9. View abstract
  71. Kim JH, Im KC, Kim JS, Lee SA, Kang JK. Correlation of interictal spike-wave with thalamic glucose metabolism in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. Neuroreport. 2005 Aug 01; 16(11):1151-5. View abstract
  72. Nam SY, Lee SW, Im KC, Kim JS, Kim SY, Choi SH, Ryu JS, Moon DH, Oh SJ, Yi BY, Kim JH, Ahn SD, Shin SS, Kim SB, Choi EK, Lee BJ. Early evaluation of the response to radiotherapy of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck using 18FDG-PET. Oral Oncol. 2005 Apr; 41(4):390-5. View abstract