What is acute transverse myelitis?
Acute transverse myelitis (ATM) involves a brief but intense attack of inflammation (swelling) in the spinal cord that damages myelin. Myelin is the protective covering of nerve fibers. Myelin is also called "white matter" due to its color. Because ATM affects myelin, it is a type of "demyelinating" disorder. The spinal cord transmits information between the brain and the body. ATM usually affects the middle (thoracic) portion of the spinal cord. In some cases, it can affect the upper (cervical) portion of the spinal cord.
Most children with ATM make a complete or nearly complete recovery. The main medication for treating ATM is a type of steroid, and most children tolerate the medication very well. Although ATM is related to multiple sclerosis (MS), ATM typically occurs only once, and only in the spinal cord, while a child with MS has further, repeated attacks in both the brain and spinal cord.
Acute Transverse Myelitis | Symptoms & Causes
What are the symptoms of ATM?
The symptoms of ATM come on quickly and can include:
- numbness or tingling
- loss of bowel and bladder function
Weakness and numbness occur on both sides of the body, which is why it is called "transverse."
If the thoracic portion (middle) of your child's spinal cord is affected, her legs will be affected, but her arms won't.
If the cervical portion (upper) of your child's spinal cord is affected, both her arms and legs can be affected. In severe cases, breathing can be affected.
Acute Transverse Myelitis | Diagnosis & Treatments
How is acute transverse myelitis diagnosed?
There is not one specific test that is used to diagnose ATM. There are several exams and tests that the doctors must look at including:
- your child's medical history
- a neurological examination
- spine MRI scan to check for swelling in the spinal cord and rule out causes other than ATM
- brain MRI scan to make sure there is no swelling in the brain
- a lumbar puncture (spinal tap) to make sure that there is no infection in the spinal fluid, such as meningitis or encephalitis
- blood tests to look for infectious triggers and for other conditions which can be confused with ATM
How do we treat acute transverse myelitis?
Treatment of ATM usually requires a child to be hospitalized for one to two weeks. Medications are used to reduce the inflammation (swelling) in the spinal cord. The main medication that is used is called methylprednisolone (Solu-medrol®), which is a corticosteroid given by IV once a day for three to five days. This medication is completely different from the illegal steroids that some athletes use.
Most children with ATM improve with high doses of methylprednisolone. If this medication doesn't work, there are other treatments that can be tried (such as plasmapheresis or intravenous immunoglobulin therapy).
Some children will be placed on a steroid called prednisone for a short period of time. Your child may also be prescribed a medication to prevent stomach irritation. If your child is experiencing pain, a pain management plan will be developed.
After discharge from the hospital, some children go to a rehabilitation hospital to work on things like strength and balance. Some children go home and work with a physical therapist. It is important to follow up with the neurologist in the outpatient clinic. The neurologist will check your child's neurological examination, and will also perform a follow-up.
How we care for acute transverse myelitis
Boston Children's Hospital treats children with ATM through our Pediatric Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders Program. The program team is led by doctors specializing in demyelinating disorders, and includes a pediatric neuropsychologist, a nurse, and a social worker.
Acute Transverse Myelitis | Frequently Asked Questions
Steroid treatment can reduce some symptoms and stop new symptoms from developing.
Although the long-term prognosis for children with ATM varies, most children make a complete or nearly complete recovery, including those children with initially severe symptoms.
For most children, recovery begins within days and continues for up to one year. Motor function usually improves faster than bowel and bladder function.
Some patients can have residual symptoms such as weakness, numbness, or urinary problems.
Because ATM doesn't affect the brain, most children perform as well as they ever did at school. However, some children do fall behind in their school work. This could be the result of missed school days during the illness.
If you notice changes in your child's school performance, it is important to let your doctors and nurses know so that we can work with the school to develop an educational plan.
No. In more than 90 percent of patients, ATM occurs only once. In some patients, it can reoccur. It is not known why patients develop ATM with certain infections at certain times.
If you notice symptoms during an infection that you think are unusual, such as weakness, numbness, or imbalance, it is important to notify your child's doctor immediately.
- Both ATM and MS involve autoimmune responses to myelin in the spinal cord. They are both "demyelinating" disorders.
- Symptoms common to both disorders include weakness, numbness, and bowel and bladder problems.
- Corticosteroids are used to treat attacks of ATM and MS.
- ATM typically occurs only once, while patients with MS have further, repeated attacks of inflammation in the brain and spinal cord.
- Most patients with MS are treated with ongoing medication to prevent such attacks. Patients with ATM don't require such medication.
Although it is uncommon, children who initially have ATM can later develop MS. Children who have the "complete" form of ATM with more severe symptoms actually appear to be at lower risk of developing MS than patients with "partial" ATM.
Regardless of which form of ATM your child has, it is important for her to have ongoing follow-up care. Let the doctor know immediately if your child develops new symptoms, such as:
- visual loss
- loss of balance