Current Environment:

Selected references

Cholera and related AB5-subunit toxin entry

Lencer, W.I., C. Delp, M.R. Neutra, and J.L. Madara. 1992. Mechanism of cholera toxin action on a polarized human epithelial cell line: role of vesicular traffic. J. Cell Biol. 117:1197-1209.

Lencer, W.I., J.B. de Almeida, S. Moe, J.L. Stow, D.A. Ausiello, and J.L. Madara. 1993. Entry of cholera toxin into polarized human intestinal epithelial cells: Identification of an early brefeldin A sensitive event required for A1-peptide generation. J. Clin. Invest. 92:2941-2951.

Lencer, W.I., S. Moe, P.A. Rufo, and J.L. Madara. 1995. Transcytosis of cholera toxin subunits across model human intestinal epithelia. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 92:10094-10098.

Wolf, A.A., M.G. Jobling, S. Wimer-Mackin, J.L. Madara, R.K. Holmes, and W.I. Lencer. 1998. Ganglioside structure dictates signal transduction by cholera toxin in polarized epithelia and association with caveolae-like membrane domains. J. Cell Biology. 141:917-927.

Tsai, B., C. Rodighiero, W.I. Lencer, and T. Rapoport. 2001. Protein disulfide isomerase acts as a redox-dependent chaperone to unfold cholera toxin. Cell. 104:937-948.

Fujinaga, Y., A.A. Wolf, C. Rodigherio, H. Wheeler, B. Tsai, L. Allen, M.G. Jobling, T. Rapoport, R.K. Holmes, and W.I. Lencer. 2003. Gangliosides that associate with lipid rafts mediate transport of cholera toxin from the plasma membrane to the ER. Mol Biol Cell. 14:4783-4793.

Saslowsky, D.E., J.A. Cho, H. Chinnapen, R.H. Massol, D.J. Chinnapen, J.S. Wagner, H.E. De Luca, W. Kam, B.H. Paw, and W.I. Lencer. 2010. Intoxication of zebrafish and mammalian cells by cholera toxin depends on the flotillin/reggie proteins but not Derlin-1 or -2. J. Clin. Invest. 120:4399-4409.

Innate Immunity

Cho, J.A., A.H. Lee, B. Platzer, B.C. Cross, B.M. Gardner, H. De Luca, P. Luong, H.P. Harding, L.H. Glimcher, P. Walter, E. Fiebiger, D. Ron, J.C. Kagan, and W.I. Lencer. 2013. The Unfolded Protein Response Element IRE1alpha Senses Bacterial Proteins Invading the ER to Activate RIG-I and Innate Immune Signaling. Cell Host & Microbe. 13:558-569.

Trafficking and transcytosis by FcRn and the glycosphingolipid GM1

Dickinson, B., K. Badizadegan, Z. Wu, J.C. Ahouse, X. Zhu, N.E. Simister, R.S. Blumberg, and W.I. Lencer. 1999. Bidirectional FcRn-dependent IgG transport in a polarized human intestinal cell line. J. Clin. Invest. 104:903-911.

Spiekermann, G.M., P.W. Finn, E.S. Ward, J. Dumont, B.L. Dickinson, R.S. Blumberg, and W.I. Lencer. 2002. Receptor-mediated immunoglobulin G transport across mucosal barriers in adult life: functional expression of FcRn in the mammalian lung. J. Exp Med. 196:303-310.

Bitonti, A.J., J.A. Dumont, S.C. Low, R.T. Peters, K.E. Kropp, V.J. Palombella, J.M. Stattel, Y. Lu, C.A. Tan, J.J. Song, A.M. Garcia, N.E. Simister, G.M. Spiekermann, W.I. Lencer, and R.S. Blumberg. 2004. Pulmonary delivery of an erythropoietin Fc fusion protein in non-human primates through an immunoglobulin transport pathway. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 101:9763-9768.

Tzaban, S., R.H. Massol, E. Yen, W. Hamman, S.R. Frank, L.A. Lapierre, S.H. Hansen, J.R. Goldenring, R.S. Blumberg, and W.I. Lencer. 2009. The recycling and transcytotic pathways for IgG transport by FcRn are distinct and display an inherent polarity. J. Cell Biology. 185:673-684.

Chinnapen, D.J., W.T. Hsieh, Y.M. Te Welscher, D.E. Saslowsky, L. Kaoutzani, E. Brandsma, L. D'Auria, H. Park, J.S. Wagner, K.R. Drake, M. Kang, T. Benjamin, M.D. Ullman, C.E. Costello, A.K. Kenworthy, T. Baumgart, R.H. Massol, and W.I. Lencer. 2012. Lipid Sorting by Ceramide Structure from Plasma Membrane to ER for the Cholera Toxin Receptor Ganglioside GM1. Developmental Cell. 23:573-586.

Jobling, M.G., Z. Yang, W.R. Kam, W.I. Lencer, and R.K. Holmes. 2012. A Single Native Ganglioside GM1-Binding Site Is Sufficient for Cholera Toxin To Bind to Cells and Complete the Intoxication Pathway. mBio. 3.

Saslowsky, D.E., Y.M. te Welscher, D.J. Chinnapen, J.S. Wagner, J. Wan, E. Kern, and W.I. Lencer. 2013. Ganglioside GM1-mediated transcytosis of cholera toxin bypasses the retrograde pathway and depends on the structure of the ceramide domain. J.Biological Chemistry. 288:25804-25809.

Weflen, A.W., N. Baier, Q.J. Tang, M. Van den Hof, R.S. Blumberg, W.I. Lencer, and R.H. Massol. 2013. Multivalent immune complexes divert FcRn to lysosomes by exclusion from recycling sorting tubules. Mol Biol Cell. 24:2398-2405.

te Welscher, Y.M., D.J. Chinnapen, L. Kaoutzani, R.J. Mrsny, and W.I. Lencer. 2014. Unsaturated glycoceramides as molecular carriers for mucosal drug delivery of GLP-1. J. Controlled Release. 175:72-78.


Lencer, W.I. 2001. Cholera:  Invasion of the intestinal epithelial barrier by a stably folded protein toxin. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 280:G781-786.

Lencer, W.I., and B. Tsai. 2003. The intracellular voyage of cholera toxin: going retro. Trends Biochem Sci. 28:639-645.

Lord, J.M., L.M. Roberts, and W.I. Lencer. 2006. Entry of protein toxins into mammalian cells by crossing the endoplasmic reticulum membrane: co-opting basic mechanisms of endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 300:149-168.

Cho, J.A., D.J. Chinnapen, E. Aamar, Y.M. Te Welscher, W.I. Lencer, and R. Massol. 2012. Insights on the trafficking and retro-translocation of glycosphingolipid-binding bacterial toxins. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2:51.

Rath, T., K. Baker, J.A. Dumont, R.T. Peters, H. Jiang, S.W. Qiao, W.I. Lencer, G.F. Pierce, and R.S. Blumberg. 2013. Fc-fusion proteins and FcRn: structural insights for longer-lasting and more effective therapeutics. Critical reviews in biotechnology.

Lencer, W.I., H. DeLuca, M.J. Grey, and J.A. Cho. 2015. Innate Immunity at Mucosal Surfaces: the IRE1-RIDD-RIG-I Pathway. Trends Immunol. 36:401-409.

Please see full list of publications here.