Current Environment:

Recent publications

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We are committed to ongoing research that looks to improve diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to CVD. This research includes studies and publications on various cerebrovascular diseases; such as:


There is evidence to suggest that the formation of pediatric brain aneurysms is different than those in adults. Our research looks at the unique characterizes of aneurysms in children.

Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs)

Our research into arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) includes new approaches to treating these tangles of arteries and veins in the brain. To learn more about AVMs, watch our video series.

Arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs)

Our work with arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) includes innovative ways to adopt; enhance; and create minimally invasive strategies and devices to safely treat even the youngest of children.

Brain and spine vascular anomalies

We feel a responsibility to our patients to learn as much as possible about vascular malformations and tumors in children as well as adults. Our work includes the development of effective therapies as well as research that may lead to ways to prevent these anomalies.

Cavernous malformations (CMs)

Cavernous malformation are small masses made up of abnormal, thin-walled blood vessels. While they can occur anywhere in the body, they usually only cause serious problems when in the brain and spinal cord. Our research has focused on ways to better understand CMs in hopes of treating and preventing potentially life-threatening neurologic symptoms.

Dural sinus malformations

Our work with dural sinus malformations (DSM) includes innovative approaches to fetal imaging and prognosing these vascular malformations while a child is utero.

Vein of Galen malformations

Our research into vein of Galen malformations looks to pave the way for advances in the diagnosis and treatment of patients and includes investigating early neonatal and fetal imaging to accurately assess risk and time treatment decisions.

  • Arko L; Lambrych M; Montaser A; Zurakowski D; Orbach; DB. Fetal and neonatal MRI predictors of aggressive early clinical course in vein of Galen malformation. Am Journal Neurorad Jun 2020; 41 (6) 1105-1111. This study found that early neonatal and fetal MRI can accurately predict which fetuses with vein of Galen malformations will go on to have heart failure after birth.
  • Duran D; Zeng X; Chih Jin S; Choi J; Nelson-Williams C; Yatsula B; Gaillard J; Furey CG; Qiongshi Lu Q; Timberlake AT; Dong W; Sorscher MA; Loring E; Klein J; Allocco A; Hunt A; Conine S; Karimy JK; Youngblood MW; Zhang J; DiLuna ML; Matouk CC; Mane S; Tikhonova IR; Castaldi C; López-Giráldez F; Knight J; Haider S; Soban M; Alper SL; Komiyama M; Ducruet AF; Zabramski JM; Dardik A; Walcott BP; Stapleton CJ; Aagaard-Kienitz B; Rodesch G; Jackson E; Smith ER; Orbach DB; Berenstein A; Bilguvar K; Vikkula M; Gunel M; Lifton RP; Kahle KT. Mutations in Chromatin Modifier and Ephrin Signaling Genes in Vein of Galen Malformation. Neuron. 2019 02 06; 101(3):429-443.e4
  • Daniel Duran D; Karschnia P; Gaillard JR; Karimy JK; Youngblood MW; DiLuna ML; Matouk CC; Aagaard-Kienitz B; Smith ER; Orbach DB; Rodesch G; Berenstein A; Gunel M; Kahle KT. Human genetics and molecular mechanisms of vein of Galen malformation. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2018 04; 21(4):367-374.
Moyamoya disease

The Boston Children’s Moyamoya Program is the largest center of its kind in the country — and our team of experts are the most experienced in caring for children and adolescents with this rare condition and have played a key role in developing the American Heart Association’s (AHA) guidelines for management of moyamoya and stroke. To learn more about moyamoya disease, watch our video series.


The Stroke and Cerebrovascular Center at Boston Children’s is one of a few specialized programs in the country dedicated to understanding, preventing, and treating childhood strokes. We are one of the most active pediatric stroke research centers in the world — both clinically and in the laboratory — working to improve treatments.

Pediatric acute ischemic stroke and sinus thrombosis
  • For a complete list of publications by Edward Smith, MD, visit his researcher profile.
  • For a complete list of publications by Darren Orbach, MD, PhD, visit his researcher profile.